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My name is Jeff Kotte and today we're gonna be talking about is understanding your electrical. Manager power instead anger longer. A little bit about us we've been in business for 10 years actually this year. And for some of you that don't know me when I bought my boat 11 years ago. My electrical system was in what I imagined it to be. I E. reliable it would just work. For. And so I came to grips with the fact that I needed to make things better and that's how I started my business. Big thing is I'm really proud about is that through teamwork and whatnot in our organization last year we did over 600 votes electrically we work on 600 votes and what that means and it really what that that's really the genesis of this presentation and what that means is. I'm leveraging all of these things that we're doing every year boats on boats to really talk to you here and share what are common things that make a bold better electrically speaking give you the ability to go out there and not worry about power as much as a lot of us have to worry about. All the reputation that our shop is done over time is really based on what. The people in the team are doing and a big thing of that is actually having people that I care about the details and I'll maybe mentioning that throughout the presentation but in electrical there's really no room to not care about the details it's a detailed business it's like being an accountant where the decimal point is matters and you can just say well I kind of got a rise I moved a little to laugh to look right no big deal electrical is one of those things where you have to have everything right there's no room for error it's 100 percent or you don't do it. And so you need to be a certain mindset when you do electrical you have to have that perfection is outlook in the work that you do and I'll be talking about that too and also lastly the I think I'm gonna be talking about is making sure that when you do something you do it to coat I do it properly do it safely. So here's a little bit I did send over it be talking during this presentation. And we'll start at the beginning I think a lot of people deal with electrical systems and they do it and adult function meaning they don't do things you know with my background being an engineer I like to kind of come out a problem from an organized perspective and this is really the way of looking at how you should solve a lecture gold not issues but you should solve the electrical. Solution or problem that we have on boats and it really starts from the beginning which is going to be figuring out what you need requirements. Calculating what your power needs are figuring what size battery bank you should have so that I will figure out what that means and then looking at ways to re charging that battery back via different technologies. So whatever you're designing and you're working on electrical system on a boat I always advise people to remember that you want to never compromise on safety and that sounds trivial it sounds kind of a blanket statement but if you're doing something and you're reading a book or a manual on Aug do something and you're not an expert. Hey I always advise people to follow what the manual says to the latter right and if you're gonna start deviating from the path. Do so. Being knowing that you're an expert at doing it because there's so many pitfalls in the manuals never tell you why you should do something they just tell you what to do if you follow the instructions you'll generally not get yourself in hot water it's when orders get creative and start figuring better ways of installing something and that a lot of times what happens is it's unknown you don't intentionally take a short cut that has negative or safety implications. And so safety I think is really important that's certainly something we're gonna be talking about and all the other point there too is if you're gonna do something make sure it's reliable on about nothing drives a lot of people crazier than have something working and not working or working intermittently so always make sure that if you're going to do a connection that's always a good connection no matter if the boat is being run you know when the engines running and there's vibration and then suddenly the I don't the radar stops working when the engines running at a certain RPM that's going to drive you crazy so you really want to make sure that you do things reliably. And as an objective analytical system can be as simple as and I think everyone has to have an electrical system that gives those things which is started engine. Run some lights. And potentially a water pump at the very basic that's what electrical system is going to do on a boat the very least and that's kind of the foundation and from there you know some people are a lot of boats now have refrigeration you're gonna have you know maybe an inverter on board to run somebody see well you're gonna have maybe a sound system maybe you're gonna have a TV system you're gonna have satellite TV and it goes on and on and then some other folks are gonna say you know I just thought I want to be on my boat I'm really kind of a luddite I'm not gonna have a lot of things but I want to be able stand anchor. Indefinitely or I want to state actor for 3 days or 5 days or I only want to recharge after 2 weeks or I want to be I'm a sailor and I need to go from place to place by the time I run my engine when I'm going to get to my new destination I don't have to plug in. So all of us are coming out electrical with different types of. Ideals or desired outcomes but these are the sort of objectives that. Most of us are warning electrical system to do for us when we do electrical systems a lot of people ask me what's the ideal battery back or how much power do I need and that might be the first conversation I have with an order we're on the phone or meeting at the boat show Jeff how much power do I need. And it's almost a unfortunately it's a rhetorical question because it's a question that comes with another question. And realistically then I say well what size boat do you have what type of boat do you have what type of border are you right just trying to narrow down what are going to be your daily and our budget and we'll talk about that a little bit but before we go further I want to emphasize. That generally what how much money or power you use in a day on a boat is really going to very depending on the seasons because loads are generally heavier and longer during the winter or the fall and spring because you might have the heat on the lights are on longer right the date gets dark around 5 all those things are going to very to get to make your own electrical loads bigger. Remember. The largest load proportional to any boat is pretty much refrigeration up to about 80 feet the largest load on a boat is refrigeration. So if you have refrigeration on your boat I you can't really consider yourself a luddite because refrigeration is by far the number one largest low that you'll have on a boat and it's actually quite challenging to power refrigeration all the time I mean it's it's it's that is predominantly one of the big reasons why I'm probably in business is because most of us want to have cold beverages food whatever it is and to give you that power to be able to run refrigeration indefinitely while you're out away from a doctor that's very challenging. Remember also that diesel heat either. I hydronic or forced air also drop power the heat itself is generated to diesel but the circulation of the heat throughout the boat is actually going to be via DC and even on as far as to say more web also system you could be drying you know when it's running 1015 apps which is way more than you would from your fridge. So if you've got heat system and you're actually doing shoulder season cruising that's actually gonna be really taxing on your electrical system as well. These are sort of like daily battery usage that you can imagine some voters are going to have I mean I'm. I'm not telling you hear what you're using I'm using as a barometer to give you the range of what people are doing. And it might be as you know some of us might be around 60 amp hour 70 very very that's extremely low power consumption. And you might go to 500 amp hours within the normal range. You know I mean at 60 feet is probably when it stops being a typical boat. After that you know the power. There's gonna be a gap where there's both are still run off batteries but then you know past 90 feet it's pretty much a generator boat and the generator just running all the time and then actually becomes a very simple but electrically speaking it's very simple it's like it's like a house it's just everything is easy and you have a little bit DC loads but the whole boat is run off generators for us that have smaller boats you know ranging from 20 feet 5560 feet that's where it's challenging because now you're writing your boat off batteries or you walk to run your boat off batteries. We have a lot of orders that have grand banks 42 and I don't remember the number varies it's not always you know 100 75 amp hours like I have there I have some orders that have a deep freeze freezer on top I have some orders that you know never watch TV only have refrigeration close allies when it gets dark or don't have lights whatever you know so it rage I got some owners I do about 300 amp hours on a Graham actually 242 and others that are 100 but on average it's about 170 5:00 hours and you'll see why this matters because this is how you're gonna go about figuring out if you have the right battery size for your boat. So I mentioned the word daily empower and that's really kind of like the unit of measure and how you define a battery bank for capacity. And so we need to figure out what that daily half hour back budget is and it's a little like traveling it's similar you know when you travel do you spend $500 a day $100 a day or $1000 a day and we need to know what that daily after our budget is because that's going to allow us to figure out. How we're gonna use that's the first thing that we're used to decide. By the way the slides are available via PDF on our website as well I'm gonna post them all on our website. What that's going to allow you to do is then you can figure out what's how much time is it going to take between the time you get to recharge right sell sell border might be say Jeff I want to be voting and I'm gonna stand in anchorage for 2 days and I'm gonna stay there for 2 days and I want a battery bank that allows me to stay somewhere for 2 days. Until I get a chance to run the engine again or I might have a power border who's got a genset and says Jeff I run my Jen said in the morning at around 8 or 9 and then I'll run it again around 4 or 5 a dinner for a couple hours in the morning couples are night so the longest time I will be running my generator is going to be between dinner time and morning. And that's the gap that I need to have my batteries run and run everything on my boat while I'm asleep until the next morning I started over again. So once you've got your daily up our budget you've got to figure out the frequency at which you're gonna recharge your batteries. And so your usable battery capacity is. For example in this instance is a fellow has 200 amp hours of daily only wants to be out there for 2 days at a time continuous so he'll need 400 amp hours of usable battery capacity and you'll notice the word usable means something here because I battery isn't. A battery in the sense of all the power that is in a battery should not be taken out and we'll talk about that later there's a huge cost to discharging the battery all the way down to 10.5 aunts and that's how batteries die prematurely as people run their batteries a lot harder than they should and the batteries only give them a year or 2 years of service. So in this instance we got an order that needs 400 amp hours of usable battery capacity. Now here's the real interesting realize ation is that if you've got a flooded deep cycle battery on your boat. You're gonna find that you're only going to be able to discharge that flooded battery to about 50 percent depth of discharge and if you do that you're gonna get about 300 cycles. I need G. M. gel battery which is a seal valve regulated batteries you can bring down to 30 percent and still get 300 cycles. The firefly AGM which you might have read about it's been pretty hot the last couple years you'll get 1200 cycles at 20 percent so you can bring it all the way down from 100 to 20 percent and you can do that 1200 times. And what that means is that your range with a lead acid battery is from affective ceiling for ball charging is around 85 that's optimistic it's probably even closer to 80 and with time it's going to drift away and worse is going to go to 75 percent and that's the time that it takes you can quickly recharge a battery. So if you look at the numbers and you hope for the best. With a flooded battery you're looking between 50 and 85 AGM between 30 and 85 and a firefly between 20 and 85. And those numbers hi but the difference between those 2 numbers on the slide and that tells you that realistically when you size the battery back a flooded battery bank you effectively need 3 times your usable battery capacity to size the battery. So here's the example. I'll go back to the other side so if you're putting a flooded battery bank and we said the felony 400 amp hours of usable in terms of his battery bank size now it's gonna be 1200 hours if you go with a GM it's 800 if you go with a firefly it's going to be 1.5 so 600 amp hours. So as you choose your batteries you can actually have less batteries and still have more usable battery capacity and that's one of the reasons why owners boat owners are considering going to EGM as a way to have less batteries less weight but still have the same amount of usable battery capacity. Going back to the slide here I've got AGM verses a flooded river what I said was lead acid batteries come in different flavors you can have them AGM gel or flooded these are not lithium. And you can look at the difference the dollar signs really tell you the ratio of costs or firefly GM is gonna be 4 times more expensive than a flooded. Lead acid battery. But you look at the ratio you're looking at almost twice as much usable battery capacity as a flooded and so that's one of the reasons why owners are considering that is that so you've got less weight you can use more battery. And also the big thing is they don't sell discharge so that's another really big factor with AGM batteries. I would say. Probably 80 percent of our owners are choosing AGM it's not for everyone but there's certainly a merit to do some math and to consider it when you're purchasing batteries. I by the way here's a little side bar. When you're watching your batteries on your boat or you have a battery bank on your boat make sure that your batteries are wired so the positive and the negative cables come at opposite ends of the back it's tempting to say you know I've got 4 batteries in a row the cables can be so much shorter I'll just run them in parallel that I grabbed the first battery positive being negative what does it matter they're all in peril anyways. Does it really matter where I put the cables they're all. Connected in parallel well the reality is it doesn't matter and if you don't actually wire battery bank for even charge and discharge IV wiring at opposite ends the battery bank will die prematurely because the first battery that you're connecting to is going to be worked the hardest and in 3 years or 5 years but earlier than it should that battery will fail and when it fails and you have to replace that battery you're gonna have no choice but to replace the whole bank so it's really important when you have batteries on a boat you want your batteries to age evenly so when it's time to replace them you don't have a good battery with a terrible battery because you're just gonna have to simply either remove the battery and just keep 3 out of 4 but if you really wanted for batteries you have to change all your batteries. All at one time because battery banks always have to have the same age. You can't have already been battered can't put a brand new battery with old batteries okay I I again I could go into why but the what. Is that they have to be the same age. You also want to add this little side note because a lot of us have flooded through me on our boat. Make sure that. You don't you have a battery box that is leak proof and that's something that I would say 50 percent of us don't have. People don't really understand the purpose of Ataribox. Battery boxes don't come with hold downs on the outside for the most part and so most installers see a battery box there's no hold down still lacks the battery box in place they think it's a battery holder. And so they just drilled in the bottom. But what they don't realize is when they do that they remove the whole benefit and the whole reason people have battery boxes it's a container to container for what it's a container for Salford acid. Just don't expect your battery not to leech just expect when it's going to leak. Right and that's what that picture shows when I do electrical audits and we do probably. Maybe 400 maybe 300 electrical audits a year. A lot of people always think oh it's just water on top of my batteries it's humidity so I have a moist or human engine room. No that's not that's not water that's all for gases that leak through the vent caps that will never be operate. And it's not been 9 it will eat through metal. And so there goes the bottom the box it's the stainless goes through its the wood there would have well actually be destroyed by the sulfur gases or becomes it loses its rigidity. And so I've had instances where very expensive repair bills happened because the battery boxes were screwed from within so if your battery box on your boat is magically held into place. The likely culprit is that it's actually screwed from within and therefore you're losing the real big benefit of a battery box which is a container for Suffolk outside. And hear what I'm saying is for the owners that have flooded lead acid batteries it's actually central that you never have the plates exposed to air. The the plates have to always always have this sulfur gas it on top so you need to top off batteries constantly especially if you're cycling the batteries cycling means thinking about it from 100 percent to 70 percent 100 to 60 if you're using your batteries you're gonna find that your batteries are gonna lose electrolyte. Through evaporation so it's evaporating clearly distilled water and you need to top it off again. So that you bring though this offer gas at the water level in the battery to be above the plates. K. if the plates are exposed it's permanent damage. So you can simply lose all the electrolyte in a battery bank pour distilled water in there and think that everything's gonna be okay it's it's a non recoup Roble and that they can never ever happen. All right so where we talked about choosing the battery right and what would I say I said first you got to figure out what you're doing up our budget and I know it's harder if that's easier said than done at the end if people have a question about what's my daily after our budget I can give you a pretty good estimate just by talking to you for probably 3 minutes just because we do so many bills we figure that we then figure out how often you want to recharge you know half a day for 3 days 5 days whatever it is we take that and then we figure out what battery chemistry we're gonna use that we either multiply times 3 times 24 times 1.5 right depending on. For gonna go with flooded let flooded lead acid AGM lead acid or firefly lead acid batteries. So. After that we need to choose what type of battery were gonna put on board and batteries come in all different dimensions and what I'm trying to highlight here is I'm saying you've got group 24 group 27 group 3148 the slim line golf cart L. sixteens those are all known battery dimensions the manufacturers of all agreed on a known battery size. And you can then choose those batteries in different types of chemistry's like AGM flooded. Gel firefly AGM whatever it is you can pretty mix and match any type of battery size with battery chemistry. And if you have a flooded battery you've got to choose another criteria is it going to be a deep cycle application starter application or dual purpose application. So for instance a golf cart book let's talk let's say need the battery which is a big truck battery. 60 pounds you know in. This big. That battery you can buy it's a needy battery. 8 days the size you can buy it in flooded and you're gonna want to start an engine so then you buy and starter application. You can also have an AD flooded deep cycle. Or you can say I wanted A. D. AGM. So don't worry if you've got golf carts on your boat you can switch swatch or swap those golf cart flooded deep cycle for golf Carty Jian's. Before we go on and we leave the batteries and we go to start talking about charging. I'm one of the things I emphasize orders to always get and we probably sell over 100 at least of these battery motors a year. That's the number one thing that I recommend to all board orders is really to get what I consider to be a fuel gauge and a speedometer. For your batteries. So fuel gauge for me means knowing what the level is of your batteries in percentage like a fuel gauge the fuel gauge doesn't tell you how many leaders you have in the tank it tells you I'm half full quarter full 3 quarters full whatever it is it's a bunch of lines but at the end of the day it's telling you what the capacity of your batteries in something that is readily understandable to anyone looking at the battery modern that's effectively a fuel gauge. And then the next thing that battery monitor tells you is also the rate at which you either charge or discharge of batteries. And that for me is a speedometer. Because with batteries you really have no sense of the speed at which you're just charging your batteries you can't feel it per se you have to have it measured and it's important for you to know that maybe before you go to sleep in the evening that your batteries are not having a 30 apple 50 after 100 M. draw because you left an inverter on and you have a small ceramic heater working off your batteries right it's like suddenly realizing looking your speedometer and you're doing $200 an hour in a school zone. Right you if you're in a really good sports car you're not going to know the speed which you're going because that's the whole point of the sports car you know they're engineered that way well your batteries aren't telling you what sort of load you have on them and a battery monitor is a really good way for you to figure out and know that you're overloading your batteries. Or also that your property the loading them maybe you're being really good way to know feedback well look I'm only drawing 5 apps yeah shut off all the lights are not running too much I'm trying to make do with what I have. Because this power equation problem is not solvable with just more batteries. It's really rare that you'll have an owner that's going to say I have too much power. It might happen maybe 2 percent of the time but everyone everywhere every boater always wants more power and the way to do that easily is to reduce consumption and a good way to reduce consumption is to have feedback on what you're actually doing your batteries and a battery monitor will tell you that because LSS what's going in and out. And then what you're gonna be able to have as you're gonna be able to say oh you know what I'm drawing 5 apps or I'm drunk 15 why don't I shut the lights off I don't need them I forgot my cabin lights or forgot my engine room lights. Right and reduce your consumption so that your batteries are gonna last longer. Before we talk about sizing. Or finding the right how to recharge your batteries I want to emphasize at. The importance of actually. Matching your battery charger science to your battery bank sites it's absolutely essential that as you increase your battery capacity and people over time of it being freezing their battery capacity your charger follows in a lockstep manner. And that locks that matter means that for flooded batteries your minimum charge rate should be 10 percent of capacity for example if you have 2 golf cart batteries wired in series because you want 12 volts so you have maybe 220 hours your minimum charge rate for those batteries should be 10 percent of 220 hours. So that's 22 apps. And 2 golf carts is not a big house bank I mean that's pretty much on the tiny side and from there 468 and the people have a dis which is like again 2 golf carts effectively 1 battery and so people have now battery banks that are 600 amp hours 800 amp hours 0 amp hours I have an older 20 400 hours right as people are adding bigger and bigger battery banks it's essential for for the life for the battery to last as long as you expected to last for you to have the right charge right and if you don't you're probably it's going to be a proportion of how bad you're off that ratio but if for example you have 3 percent or 4 percent of battery capacity as a charge right your battery life is going to be probably a third or a quarter of what you expected meeting you put brand new batteries in. And after 2 years your batteries are done. So. And batteries unfortunately when they fail they don't always tell the doc they feel while you're cruising. And it's not just money because if it was just a money thing people it's would be that painful it's the fact that you have to physically remove the batteries from about and find other ones to replace them with and that's not something you can do anywhere or easily your desolation sound or somewhere and you have to swap your batteries that could mean losing 2 days 3 days 4 days having to go back to the dock finding work getting someone to muscle the batteries back on board muscle them out and so what I always emphasized orders it's not so much as the money you lose by changing your batteries prematurely but it's also that labor in their effort that's involved in actually taking them out of out and back into the boat so that's why it's essential to have a charger rate that is a minimum of 10 percent of capacity. And I I want also stressed the fact that when boat builders builder voted 95 or 2000 or 80 or 79 or whatever your boat was built and they put 2 tiny batteries in the bill because your bill didn't have refrigeration they did not size a charger for all possibilities looking in the future 30 years from now. Right so designers and electrical engineers when they're designing a system they're designing all the pieces that system for what's in place right now and if you make a change at the house bank and you quadruple the house bank. More the charger that was there was it's now a quarter of what it should have been right and so you need to change your batteries and you need to change the charter but then remember the Chargers also wired for a quarter so the lines going to the batteries the charger also have to be changed because they're not going to put a wire that's 4 times the size right so everything is picked and shoes and works as a system so when you change one part of the system you have to consider what are all the impacts the daisy chain domino effect that I have as I change the batteries and I put more than I have to change bigger charger bigger charger means changing the lines probably not on the AC but on the DC at the change of fuses all these things add up and should be factored in when you think about increasing your battery back sides. The good news is AGM batteries can take up to 40 percent of the charge rate and what that means is you can charge your batteries much quickly or much quicker with an AGM batteries and that is going to mean a lot to sailboat or powerboat is that have big banks and want to get the job done relatively soon so that you can go back to peace and quiet. So there's a lot of different ways of recharging batteries on a boat. And today we're gonna talk about the first 4 ways. We're talk about Chargers which are. Known also as converters Chargers are just modern day converters there's just marketing words to define something we'll talk about what that means alternators you can after all because you know some both have 2 engines or they have to alternatives on one engine. I'm not that all fuel cell which is kind of a methanol powered battery charger. And then the other one is solar the DC genset is also something I really like and there's wind turbines but for the purpose of this talk we're gonna talk about the 4 but I just want to make sure I mention all of them here because these are for 6 different ways of review recharging your batteries on your boat. I what I'm trying to highlight here is I'm saying smart because battery Chargers today or not like converters of yesterday yesterday is about 20 years ago give or take a lot of voters still have converters on their boat converters can not be left on Burnley they'll boil a battery and they'll kill it but you can leave a smart charger on your boat indefinitely all my both certainly my Chargers on 247 unless I'm away from the dock I've never turned it off I always leave it on and to give you an idea my flooded deep cycle batteries lasted me 10 years point 5 so they certainly didn't boil and I'm not I'm not lucky my boat is far from where I live in the sunshine coast and so I don't see it every day like some owners I don't top off the water every day. But I had a charger on the battery is maintaining them all the time in what's called the float mode. So you can leave a smart charger on your batteries indefinitely. The other advantage with the smart Chargers that it's going to reduce your charge time and that's going to be essential for boaters that have a genset because what it is it's a way to reduce your chance at runtime. Right for people to have a chance that they want to run it but they don't want to run it longer than they have to. They want to have peace and quiet. And what the smart means smart means Barca absorption float and these are 3 marketing words and what they mean it's a way to do battery charging in stages. And Bach is the stage where we want to stay in most of the time because that's the rate at which we we re charge the batteries as quickly as possible balk is a little bit if I got on rap on a highway you do as much as you can as fast as you can and that's Bach and Bach is going to last until you get around 85 percent. And once you reach 85 percent of battery capacity then you go and absorption and that's where the voltage is limited but the apps start diminishing because they can increase the voltage. And that's where you're gonna find that your your charge rate might be only half of what it was half an hour ago it might only be a quarter of what used to be because now you're in top off mode and is your top off a battery that rate of charge. Pulls back dramatically so it never overshoots the boundaries. Of the battery okay it's a little bit like I remember when I was a kid I always want to do everything on my own and my dad wanted to show me how to feel a Jerry can of fuel you can't feel a Jerry can full of fuel from bottom to top at the same rate you just cats I know that because I did it. And if you do that and you'll full throttle and you think you're gonna let go at the very last moment when it's talked you're gonna have a geyser is just at that point they're still fuel coming in and it's just gonna come right off the top batteries are the same way you what you get near the end. The batteries have more and more resistance and you can't charging the same rate you did at the beginning now that's with lead acid batteries lithium batteries don't have that problem they go full throttle from the bottom to the top but for lead acid batteries balk absorption flow is a reality and so you want a charger that's going to actually be working within those parameters. And what I'm trying to re emphasize here and I'm saying if you have the right rate of charge you're gonna extend your battery life so I mean owners all the time completing the batteries aren't reliable but they have a battery charger that's only 5 percent or 3 percent of battery capacity so make sure that you have the right charger rate for your current battery bank and don't assume that your previous owner. Did the right thing always question everything because the previous owner might have been oblivious to this and might have put in a large battery bank but didn't do anything about the charge rate. One thing that we do quite commonly now is what's called stacking or daisy chaining Chargers what that means is as your battery gets bags get larger and larger. And let's say for example you have you know a golf cart batteries their agent which is not a crazy back. It's 800 amp hours conservatively. You can charge that battery bank conservatively at 25 percent of capacity so that's 25 of the 0 is 200 apps. So you could have 2 Chargers that are running in parallel at 100 apps each charging that battery faster so I have orders that say to me I'm Jeff I'm running my jets at right now 8:00 hours a day. It's driving me crazy is driving everyone crazy I want to reduce that chance at run time because the only reason I'm running in that long is to recharge my batteries I've done everything I needed on the sea I've already you know read the stove top did the water maker read the washer dryer did everything I needed to do on my bow within 4:00 hours why am I running it for so much longer I'm doing it to recharge my batteries the way to avoid that a reduced that is to start doing what's called stacking. Or daisy chaining Chargers so that you increase the charge right I was on a boat at 2 days ago 67 footer the owner has a 24 volt battery bank 800 amp hours so pretty big. And so on his boat it's going to be firefly AGM and so we're putting a 260 amp charger 8. So that within 2:00 hours. 500 apps hours are going to go back into its batteries and for him that's important because he doesn't like running the engine or the generator he just wants quite time. So remember that minute Max about 10 to 40 percent but on average 25 percent is a really conservative value that you won't have any problems with the batteries overheating. If you wonder if you have a fair resident charger which is also wake A. K. a converter or if you have a smart charger on your boat. The really easy way to know that is just by the way it looks if it looks from a by gone era where aesthetics the matter which was the 19 seventies and sixties. Then you have a ferro resonant charger anything that looks semi modern where aesthetics matter is going to be a smart charger the smart Chargers were invented about 95 fish and so anything that looks sophisticated as a smart charger anything that looks like a box is it fair resident charger. You'll practically not double but 50 percent increase over 60 after resin charger is not gonna be as good as a 60 amp smart charger so we commonly remove fair resident charges from boats and just replace them with smart Chargers. All right. So the next thing I want to talk about is alternators. Alternators are a way for you to recharge your batteries by converting. The rotation of your engine by taking that rotation and converting that to DC output to recharge your batteries your battery charger has nothing to do with any of that your inverter charger you're alternating turning being connected to shore power running a genset I know it sounds obvious to many of us but others it doesn't all things don't matter for an alternator and alternators something that we have on all our cars. And it's a device that. I basically allows us to simply buy that rotation of the engine to create DC power to recharge our batteries backs. And what I always emphasize owners is I'm like well if you have an engine and you have an alternator one of the easiest things to do is to try to maximize that alternator output so that while you're under way you're going from a to B. you're gonna recharge your batteries faster so that by the time you get to your destination maybe the batteries are charged or you have less time to charge them often genset via a charger. So. There's there's various ways of worrying about how to drive an alternator but one of the limiting factors is if you've got a V. belt or serpentine belt serpentine belt being better. And then also the engine recommendations they're gonna have limitations on how big the alternator can be you can just do what you want you have to fit within a certain range of alternator size and the other thing too is also the physical space you know there's alters come in different sizes and sometimes you just can't fit a large alternator on your engine so you've got all those creatures going to really be dependent or influence your decision on how big your alternator can be on your boat. A lot of us have what are called stock alternators these are alternatives that we have on board the engine and that's what the engine comes with and that's surely a 55 amp alternator. By the reality for various reasons is a 55 amp alternators again I'll put about 3035 apps. So you won't ever see 55 ab that's a marketing term it's something where it's this is this pie in the sky they'll never happen the reality is in in 55 amp alternator with an internal regulator is gonna give you about 30 apps and if you take your loads whatever they are at the time while you're running that alternator your net might not be that big because some owners have 20 out blows while they're running their engines they've got blowers they've got different things running your bravery in my chart plotter maybe on you might be running a sound system so you're not you're earning 30 you're spending 20 so you're saving 10 so the batteries are only ever going to see about 10 apps of charge rate and that's a serious limitation so making sure that your charge rate far exceeds your loans is something desirable so by the time you get to your destination you've got enough power to recharge your batteries. One way to make your alternator better is to do what's or install what's called an external regulator and external regulator basically converts your. Dom alternator into a smart alternator. And so that will output probably 50 percent increase in your alternator output just by putting an external regular and that's what it looks like. And on top of it it allows you to charge for different battery capacity capacity so really good and builders like for example tear off actually puts stock and all other boats every single one of them comes with an external regulator on both engines as a way to recharge the batteries quickly. Sell voters do it all the time or power borders that really want to maybe don't have a chance at and they want to do everything they can from that alternator so that they can recharge their batteries every time they're under way by trying to get to the destination the batteries are fully charged. The next thing we're gonna talk about is a methanol fuel cell so a fuel cell doesn't mean a lot to many of us. But the way that I position it or describe it to people is it's really a methanol powered battery charger. Meaning you don't need to have AC or generator or shore power to recharge your batteries. And so it's. Be quiet 22 decibels doesn't vibrate. Doesn't smoke and it's something you can have on board to recharge your batteries and it's a really good way for owners that don't have a generator or have a generator get taken off. Or they're close and they want to stay out at anchor for longer but. They can't they don't have space for more batteries they just their stock there's no other way to add more batteries on their boat and they just want to just have it easy so if you put one of these. Are your voting they come in different sizes it's a way for you to easily recharge your battery backs because it's one thing to have a battery bank it's like a wallet you know I mean it's good to be able to carry a lot of money by 1.what happens when you run out. And I thought all of methanol fuel cell allows you to recharge those batteries nice and steady over time without any of the. The cause or the deficiencies associated with it in a generator generates are great they do they do things quickly but they do that depending on the installation they might not be very quiet they might be really they might cause a lot of vibration on the boat and so for some orders they have a genset but they really want to reduce the amount of time that they use that genset and so I methanol fuel cell is a really good way. To go towards a quiet way of recharging your batteries and it also works all year round so I have on my boat and I thought all fuel cell. And before I jump into solar I use that pretty much in the shoulder season and in the winter that's what I use my method I'll feel self because there's not really enough sun to recharge my batteries and I like to stay at anchor and not have to move if I don't want to. All right and so they come in different models I 85 or it's sorry that should be 808140 or 210 app hours. So it's really important to carry fuel on board and you can store it everywhere it's not like gasoline. All right. So. When you're considering recharging your batteries what I emphasize the people and I did my boat 5 years ago with solar. One of the big distinction factors that we have years of the sun in the summer transfer a pretty long time and we get way better results at a solar than anybody that goes in the Caribbean down in the Pacific or anywhere else because the sun is shining for much longer so whenever you read people's critiques pros and cons of sort remember that the Pacific Northwest here has a way better output of solar then. For the Caribbean because the sun is shining for much longer you have a much longer day now in the winter it's shorter but in the summer in the Caribbean it's not a 16 hour day it's a 12 hour day right it's pretty much a 12 hour day all year round there here it can be a really really long in the summer and it's more north you go the longer it is so actually the more power you're sore so I wonder what is 100 what but if it's running for 18 hours versus 12:00 hours you're simply gonna make more power from it yes. I'm the Boettcher right now for methanol fuel cell is 30 500 for the 80 5000 for their 140 and 7004 the 210. Fuel cell is $79 and I have price sheets on all of that after if anybody has questions about price it's. So when you're thinking about considering putting solar panels the great thing about the flexible ones is there easy to mount and you can melt them anywhere. You got a wide selection I mean we've got over 40 different panel sizes. That you can choose if you can mix and match where you can about them if you gonna put them on a hard top you can put him on a bit media Dodger what orientation on the sun roof on a dive it I have some people put him on the lifelines where are you know mount them what size you have there's a lot of different selection to choose from. And before I just because it's 510 so I'm just going to quickly end here but before when you're going to select your panels you're gonna have a choice you could be asking yourself when should I go with mono or poly what that really means is am I going to go with super efficient or normal. And people say to me all the time they're like oh well you know 100 watt panel what's better mono or poly you're actually 100 what is 100 walk it's like what's have you're a ton of elephants or kind of feathers. What you realize is if you had a ton of feathers the room would be full and a ton of elephants would be a small little portion of the room so when you have 100 watt panel what you're buying if it's less efficient as you're buying a bigger panel to get that 0 water efficiency a more efficient panel is gonna be smaller so you can get 100 walks in the spider footprint and so for borders when they're choosing panels if they have analysts surface area to mount something they're generally going to choose a pop I'm a polity panel and if they have very little area and they want the most amount of energy for a small area let's say they have a small doctor they're gonna choose end up choosing a model panel. So because we have a limited delays with the start I'm gonna these are different things that you guys can see on the website. And one thing I'm gonna just in ending if you quickly are always figure out how do I decide what walks I need on my panel like is it going to be you know as a 200 what's what does that mean after hours it's a factor for SO 200 divided by 4 equals 50 amp hours and that's the daily output you're going to get from a solar panel or you could do the opposite you can say Jack I have 100 amp hours on my boat what size array is gonna allow me to state actor indefinitely will that be 400 watts you take 100 you multiply by 4 and there's a long 4000000 there but if you want the short version it's basically a factor for so I with that I'm gonna close and I want to thank you for being here today well I by the way I also want to say there's also these forms in the back for feedback please take the time to let us know how we did others they're everywhere in the back there okay thank you everyone.