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I'm magical day with Pacific out systems and I'm a really big enthusiast on electrical systems I've made a living from boat marine systems. And that today what I'm gonna share with you is really the common experiences are all the leveraging all the things that I do on boats and not just myself anymore because we've got a dozen people that are part of the team and last year we did worked on over 600 votes and we help the owners make their electrical systems better. So what I try to do what I do this sort of presentation is trying to leverage the experiences that we do helping other voters and translating that into common products that are really popular that we use often and repeatedly with other boat owners to solve something that you know we you know the problems might differ but all in all there's a lot of commonality between all of us out on the water what we try to do and what these products are going to be talking about our common ways of solving problems that we see out on the water visit the electrical systems on our boats. I have because the format of the presentation if anyone has any questions feel free to raise their hand and also I want to emphasize that there is feedback forms in the back of the room and the boat show people really like for you to hear back from all of you so take the time to just say good bad yea nay whatever it is I feel free to give your feedback. So what's the format of the presentation what I'm gonna do is we're gonna talk about 10 different products and how we're gonna look at that is we're gonna look at every single product in 3 different ways. The first is going to be what and why what's the product and why would you want one and then the next step is once you figure out what it is and why you want one is well how do I go by buying that product which I look for because those products comes from multiple vendors make sure you don't buy a product you don't actually need and then lastly the third slide on everybody the product is going to be false for installing that product on your boat because it's really is essential to read the instructions sometimes the instructions I mean they tell you everything but there's certain parts of installation of a product that are commonly omitted that might give you troubles are the product might not work as well as you thought it should just because you miss the certain installation step that's gonna make a big difference. So first and foremost what I always emphasize to all boat owners that actually want to leave the dock and decide that they're going to go anchor at least overnight one night or even maybe go for a light truck but generally at least one overnight and from there it could be some people are gone for 3 months right they might only see shore power every 2 weeks every week but the moment you decide that you're actually not you're gonna leave take your boat you're longer than a day sailor devoting and you're gonna stay added anchorage for an extended period of time even overnight a battery monitors a really good thing to consider for your boat we probably sell over 100 a 50 of these devices a year. And why I'm so emphatic in for boat owners to get it is it's a really it's a fuel gauge for your batteries and allows you to understand the depth of discharge for how much you have left in your batteries and it translates battery capacity into percentage so it's way better than voltage voltage is a crude indication of capacity it's it's a way for you to know if you're in the ballpark but if you want to actually know exactly where you are you need to have a battery monitor. And the other thing too that I really like about a battery monitor is it also tells you the rate at which you're depleting your battery back. Right the rate at which you've got a power boat if you're going really really fast your power boat your range is going to be limited right because you're burning a lot of fuel quickly because you're going fast batteries are actually the same way. The faster you deplete your batteries it's not a leaner things like fuel fuel distance and speed are not a leader correlation. You'll go much further with a power boat if you go slower not only the time it takes you but you're gonna go much further same thing with our cars you know fuel economy if you're driving your car. At top speeds in your an auto ban your range would be limited because in the top and. You're actually burning more fuel your batteries are the same way so what's interesting about that is it takes that into consideration and as a boat owner you always want. To be modest or thoughtful in your consumption of power to look at like money. It's very rare that I need a boat owner that tells me they have too much power. I might 5 to $600 in a year I might meet 5 people that tell me I don't worry about power even borders that have big boats like 8090 voters worry about power we all worry about power like most of us all worry about money to some extent and a good way to solve the money question of the power equation it's not just make more of it but to make to not waste power and a way to not waste powers to know how to meter it quantify what you're doing get a feedback for what you're taking and start reducing loads like 1 thing that's always shocking is engine room lights engine room lights are 1 of the things that are often not changed LED and you'd be surprised some engine room lights when you have those breakers on and you might not be in your engine room you're up on the flybridge you let the breaker on it might drop 10 apps right now you've got 10 amps and you might forget that they're on because you're not going in the engine room 10 apps for 2004 hours is 240 hours that's what the big boat budget. In total after hours for a day and just wasted for having 45 engine room lights being on when nobody was down there to actually need them to be turned on so I that meter is a good thing because it tells you over time you get a sense of what's normal on my boat. What should I be using at this given time and then you realize that you need to curb your consumption to maximize the amount of time you can stay at anchor right. If you're gonna buy a battery monitor you want to make sure that it has a really good size shunt which at least 300 apps aren't. You want to get a battery monitor that's going to show your battery capacity is a percentage. And that's essential because that really takes away the whole calculation thing I'm an engineer and I love math and I love doing fractions and multiplication and all these weird things but most of us. Probably don't want to do any of that and like a fuel gauge in your car it doesn't tell you how many gallons you have left or how many gallons you've taken it gives to you that in a fraction you have half a tank left an eighth of a tank. Order of attack right it's doing the calculation for you to say I'm gonna show you a fraction of a fraction or percentage or similar. And that way it's readily understandable to everyone I'm at 75 percent of capacity you don't need to be an electrical engineer to know what that means but if I tell you you're minus 214 after hours yeah like what what's mine is 214 minus 214 of what right because you need to know what your overall capacity is and then you need to readily be able to do the calculation your mind percentage will just make that easy. Popular models that we really like are the 3 that I indicated I the Victor on an Centrex link lightening pro are very very popular I'm starting to be fond of the blue season 2 a little bit more money. But what I like about the M. 2 is that it actually shows you in one glance everything you need so it's going to show you your primary battery voltage secondary battery voltage is going to show your after hours and after hours as a percentage it's gonna show your ABS so you don't need to actually engage the battery monitor to flip through the pages. What I always find is people are inherently lazy. And if you're looking here about a modern it's showing volts and you're maybe in the cabin and you need to stagnant walk over to the display press a button to go see after hours you might not do that as frequently as you should because it means that you have to stop doing whatever you're doing and get that information if you can simply glance at a screen and it tells you everything you need to know because green is bigger right and nowadays bigger screens are not that expensive. That's great because at one glance your brain is going to process 4 pieces of information that you see on there or you'll look at what you need to look at and you'll know that you'll be good to stay overnight and the next morning your inverter will be beeping because you've got a low battery. Battery monitors are really suited for deep cycle applications so what that means is if you have a battery bank set up or you have house batteries and engine batteries. You really don't need a battery monitor for your engine batteries right because your engine batteries are something that you use just to start the engine. And in our cars and I would say even in the big boats I mean I get a chance to work on mega yachts well I don't know maybe 4625 and even in those boats they don't put battery monitors on the starter batteries because a starter batteries not uses a deep cycle application it's simply used to start the engine so it starts from 100 percent it goes to 99 percent 98 percent and it's charged again and if you do that with your engine battery you really don't need to know how low the percentage is going to go because you're never gonna use it in that application. So that's a good news because it means that realistically for most of us we only have one house battery bank on or about maybe some of us have to but that's more of a legacy type of electrical system and so you can have with one battery monitor the that's the only battery monitor you need. The other thing that I try to highlight here which is really important which is the shot captures all the current going in and out a battery monitor measures current going in and out of the battery and that device that does that is called a shot. Now here's the gotcha a battery monitor is not this god device that knows everything that goes in and out of the battery unless it measures it. So you're gonna install a battery modern your vote you do everything by the book everything's amazing nothing bypasses the shop meeting nothing is not counted everything going and everything going out is captured now you hire someone to come work on your boat. That person is for example I had a hydronic heaters specialist in the manual it says I walked the hydronic heating system to be directly connected the battery. The specialist is going to say I will follow that to the letter. They're going to connect the power leads both the positive and negative to the battery. Now what the installer that didn't realize you have a battery monitor your boat. And that battery monitor now doesn't see the current going in and out for the heat because the negative was connected directly on the battery not before the shot right so suddenly it's like counting cars on the bridge and you forgot one entry point onto the bridge so there's cars are getting under that bridge that you're not counting. And so suddenly you have a heater system that is miraculously doesn't take power your heating system so amazing that it can run forever and it never dropped any apps. But weirdly Audley your batteries don't last as long. Because it doesn't make sense my batteries don't last long. Whatever my ears on but my heater doesn't draw any power. Right and so these 2 situations are mutually non exclusive they're related you're only getting half the information that's why your batteries are actually getting depleted because the batteries are running the heater in part but your battery monitor isn't so if you have a battery monitor on board it's quite common that the shop is at the wrong location maybe not initially badly installed but over time as people are adding circuits on your boat they forget to go after the shot they bypass it and all those new lows like you're down riggers maybe your fridge your deep freeze that you ran directly the battery are now not counted by your battery monitor. Battery monitors. Never lie I've never seen one fail. If it's defective it's an installation problem. I mean every rule has an exception. But if I've never seen the problem it's very unlikely that your boat has a problem. Don't look for the battery monitor to blame or find an excuse for the problem look at the installation that's probably where the issue is and I might you might have done it properly but someone else came on board bypass that and now you're not getting the full readings. And they're really important thing at the bottom of what I'm trying to highlight here is you've got to make sure that you configure the empowers capacity battery monitor doesn't really know. What's in the battery remember what it does is it counts everything that goes in and out. So it's like an accountant that starts counting all the transactions going in and out of your bank account but what you have to tell the account it is how much money did I have in the account when you started counting because it doesn't actually have counting constantly the money that's in the account it says I had $1000 in the account start counting I took $10 have added 20 to 30 to 30 again added 20 it doesn't need to wear count the money in the account and knows how much was there initially and then it's counting every transaction in and out and that's what really and battery monitor is it's really not the right term for it should be a battery character accounts transactions in and out so if you don't configure the right empowers and you tell your battery because they're always default is 200 amp hours if you didn't configure the battery monitor for 600 amp hours or 1000 or 800 the battery counter battery monitor is going to give you wrong fractions because it really doesn't understand the numbers and you'll be maybe in the negative but your batteries are still good so you want to make sure that you always configure the right battery after hours and on more modern models because now there's a lot of different battery chemistries out there also the battery type. And I spend a lot on battery motors because I really believe in that takes the whole magic out of batteries by the way electrical systems are reliable if you have them well diagnosed or monitored and it's quite predictable so the battery monitor will take out this whole magic of electrical systems and that's why I like spending a lot of time on that the next thing is an inverter charger what's an inverter charger and inverter is a device that converts DC power to AC and a charger or converter is something that converts. AC power to DC so it's kind of like inverters one wait Chargers the other way. People put inverters on their boats to run AC outlets. Predominately like a microwave and maybe a Nespresso machine TV I. hair dryer any sort of a Bose sound system anything that generally connects into our homes right so creature comforts that were familiar in our house homes are gonna be right often inverter without being connected to shore power or having a generator on. And the other thing too that's nice about inverter is especially when you get a 2000 watt inverter a bigger inverter you start having a really good charge right right as an added bonus so you got a 2000 watt inverter with 100 amp charger or F. 2800 watt inverter with 115 amp charger we'll talk about that later that's really relevant as our battery banks are getting bigger and bigger you always need to have a lockstep your inverter charger rate with your battery bank those 2 things need to sync we'll talk about that. All right this is really critical. I can't tell you the why if you want to cause be another 15 minutes. But you cannot put a non inverter model on a boat and if you do you choose to do that but don't ever blame god or you bad fortune when you lose your underwater metals that and they're all corroded your prop is guarding your shots are gone and your struts gone and you've got a $10000 bill I don't say that life's not fair and things are not going well for you you chose to put in on a remodel on your boat you shall pay the price and it's going to happen okay the way they're wired there's huge pitfalls tune like Canadian tire inverters or Chargers the way they're wired I can tell you why the what is don't do it if you choose to do it. Buyer beware. You want to look for another thing that's really boring when you're looking for an advert or something it's true sine wave. Most of the things that we like to run on an inverter are inductive loads. There's 2 types of gloves on about appliances there's inductive and resistive loads resistive loads are a toaster I hear those are resistible it's a resistir that's basically what it is and it creates heat. And inductive load is a motorized boat so for example a microwave is an inductive loads TV's are inductive blenders Nespresso machine I had a client box 3 Nespresso machines in a row. And return them and they were broken 3 times because he ratted awfully modified sine wave inverter always blaming the Nespresso machine back quality machine eventually he kind of trigger that something must be wrong. Right what's the quinces adding 3 bad Nespresso machines and then we came on board and we stayed in that you can't really run an espresso machine on a modified sine wave inverter. You also want to make sure that your inverter has low power drop meeting at idle so when it's on but not doing anything. You don't want to run take 5 apps so you want to make sure that it when it's there but not doing anything it's not drawn a lot of power some inverters draw a lot of power just to be I'm ready for you whenever you need to turn me on I'm gonna be ready but to be ready I'm gonna charge you a locked. Some of them just even recently a few years ago were drawn 5 apps on idol. 5 that is insane that's like saying I might need to drive a car and so I'm gonna have someone 35000 a year sitting and waiting for me to be chauffeured now if you've got lots of money doesn't matter but your fridge a typical freeze on a typical boat is maybe 5 apps have duty cycle so that's 2 refrigerators running off that inverter while it's just waiting for you to ask of it to do something so make sure that you look at the idol drop your inverter before you purchase one. The other thing too is you want to make sure that your inverters efficient. So efficiency means it's about conversion rate so when you go from 12 volts to 1 twenties about a factor of 10 right I mean 12 goes into 12010 times that's like the difference between an American dollar and Canadian dollar right now the exchange rate is 1.3. Right it fluctuates but there's an exchange rate. Now that exchange rate when you buy that dollar you're not charge 1.3 there's a conversion to that exchange right the bank might charge you point to on top of the 1.3. The point 02. Some inverters will tack on 35 percent to convert the power from AC to DC. For DC to AC that's significant a 35 percent conversion the banks charging us to to change modern inverters are 5. 4 so you can see that I have orders is sometimes stranger inverters for the only reason that the user inverter locked and by changing the inverter they're gonna save 30 percent of power on all their inverter loads. So when you shop for an inverter shopper inverter that sufficient. Also because inverters are nearly put close to the batteries. You want to have a remote control so that you can turn the inverter on or off so you don't have that idol. Without actually going down in some base some engine room somewhere where it's inconvenient for you to do that you want always the ability of turning it on and off remotely so remote control is really useful. And here are the popular models. By the way I'm gonna have this presentation put on my website so at the end if anyone's curious we're gonna have all this is PDF's for some of you that want to have the content but if you're installing inverter these are kind of the pitfalls you gotta look for. And there's a lot of that and I would say in a given year I do about 300 electrical audits a year that's on top of the 600 boats that we actually do work on. And I would say 90 percent of my little probably higher 95 percent of all inverters I've ever seen on a boat river I go on 300 Bucks a year myself. 95 percent of all inverters are not properly installed and the simple reason is if you look at it inverter manual it's it's it's like a book. And no man is going to read a book like that. Is it stupid it's a waste of time and they know better and so what they look at that they're like well they can't be that complicated they look at the inverter box it doesn't have all the parts to install the inverter in the box because they're not buying an inverter system they're buying an inverter. I think I'll let me just do it. Let me show you how I can just get it done without reading a manual and all the it works but all the safety features of the inverter are in the manual and don't come with that inverter. So these are common things that you're gonna see missing on your inverter installation and if you have an inverter on your boat I would be hard pressed to look at all of this and make sure that all of these things. Are done. And like I said I probably see one out of 20 belts has a probably install them for. Because that's a lot of things to do and all those things don't need to be there for the inverter to work. The problem is when the inverter when something happens inverter and you go a little bit off road. Something goes sideways sideways what's going to happen to protect the inverter and all these things matter. I also have some new inverter Chargers now on top of it where need is they're giving not only remote monitoring on a panel but remote monitoring on a phone so that's also convenient on the bigger boats or for people that are really gadget into you know technology. All right next AGM batteries Y. AGM batteries. AGM batteries are absorbed glass mat batteries what that means is they're all still lead acid batteries okay so let acid batteries are lead acid batteries or we're not talking about lithium batteries we're talking about lead acid and they really come in 3 flavors. Lead acid flooded. Lead acid AGM which is absorbed glass mat and AJ and lead acid gel. Gonzaga talk about yelp not that they're not great but it's complicated. Most of us 99 percent of us are going to go either flooded lead acid or AGM lead acid. When we re power boats or redo the battery system we always try to educate orders into making a choice that's right for them for various reasons. And one of the main reasons why you should consider an AGM is that they have more battery usable battery capacity factor about 1.5 times in a flooded battery. They don't that does much are practically limited their leak proof they'll never they'll never ever you could shoot it you can drill through it there's no water in it. They don't discharge as much and they're perfect for deep cycle and starter applications. So it's a way better battery. Hands down then a flooded deep cycle the downside is cost right I mean obviously if if this was all positive everyone would do that the downside is cost and the cost is a factor of 2 yeah question. I mean it's free absolutely maintenance free absolutely need your battery does not need your involvement when I was attending a Nigel Calder talk 3 years ago. She was echoing exactly the same thing that I see out in the field. And he was saying that people have the best intentions when they buy a flooded deep cycle battery they promised themselves that they don't need the AGM because they'll maintain their batteries and because they're good. They're going to do it and they can follow a routine and look Cardi I saved us half the money and I will top off the batteries. The problem was flooded lead acid batteries is it really doesn't care how many times you did a good action. The one time that you forget to top it off when you shut off will kill the battery. So that battery has no memory or any care that you've got it perfect for the last 19 times if the nineteenth sign you don't top off the fluids and you expose the plates that battery is going to be removed and it's not going to understand that you had a wedding this summer that your daughter went to Europe and you decided to go traveling that you got sick that you went biking in Europe instead whatever it is that you come up as a reason for not being able to do the maintenance or worse that battery is really hard to reach in my back hurts or I did 3 of the 4 I did all the cells except the one that was hard to reach one cell goes down your battery bank goes down and you have to change all your batteries so unless you're a type of person that has a great with routine and there some of us are great with routine and you follow without exception always a routine then a flooded lead acid battery might be a good choice for you but for a lot of us life gets in the way you don't maintain the battery and then that flooded lead acid battery becomes the most expensive battery because the age of the battery that you predicted you were gonna have was shortened because you killed it. So that's why Nigel and I'd recommend AGM batteries do you have a question no. That's the life expectancy. Life expectancy is is a function of cycles and cycles as a function of depth of discharge so you always have a trade off with the batteries how deep you bring it down and how you deep you bring it down and how quickly you charge it back again is really what's going to define so a lead acid battery flooded is about 300 cycles at 50 percent I AGM battery at 50 percent is 450 cycles so about 50 percent more. An AGM batteries are probably gonna last flooded batteries depends these are ranges okay there's exceptions 5 to 7 for flooded probably 610910 free GM. But if for example on my bill when I had flooded about my boat my boat had flooded batteries but I'd be be them. Like I went crazy they lasted 10 years but I am crazy about my electrical system right I'm obsessive compulsive about my electrical system checked I checked out my do everything I do everything because that's I mean that's my business that's I love that but for normal orders 5 to 7 years is average for flooded AGM a little bit more. I'm yeah what I want to say here is that when you buy a AGM battery or any sort of battery you can buy a battery in all different shapes and sizes and here you can buy them in L. 16 group 24 to 27 you can buy them 40 slim line she can mix and match battery size battery chemistry and battery manufacture so most manufacturers will do all different types of better commenced chemistries and all different battery types or sizes so you can buy an 80 D. AGM from east Penn deco you can buy an 80 D. flooded the cycle for me spend echo you can buy you know any sort of combination. All the big manufacturers like US battery Odyssey discovery all those big companies are going to have multiple batteries in their line up. And I guess if you're gonna put AGM batteries you need to make sure you have any GM compatible charger that's a really big one and if you're also going to put AGM batteries make sure within the house bank all those house batteries have to be AGM you can't have to fly to deep cycles and say oh yeah I mean IT GM I want more capacity I'm gonna put 2 other region batteries on board. The next thing I want to talk about is we talk about batteries we talked about a battery monitor we talked about inverter charger. Chargers are in points especially smart Chargers because they're going to reduce the amount of time it takes you to recharge your batteries. And there can be left on permanently meeting the battery charger will automatically phase out and give exactly what the battery needs would never over charge the battery even if the battery Chargers left on all the time which is something you can't say about for resident Chargers. And if you have the right rate of charge I eat right we have charged about we'll talk about it about 10 percent of capacity for the battery bank meeting if you have 4 golf cart batteries. In a 120 battery bank let's say it's 440 hours. You need about 44 apps of charge rate as a minimum to make sure that that battery life meets what you would expect. So these are sort of things that you need to make sure when you buy a battery charger make sure it's a battery charger that will actually allow you to choose the battery types of maybe have flooded today but eventually want to do a gym right that be nice to have. Really useful is also have a temperature compensated meeting battery voltage changes depending on what the temperature of the battery is and whatever you think about a battery voltage in your mind these numbers that may need something like 14413313812.612.812.2 all those numbers are common voltages that mean like ball charging flow charging full battery 50 percent all those numbers are actually at 37Â°F. As soon as the battery gets colder those numbers are different and it's warmer there different so if you have a temperature compensated battery charger you might have a battery that's a 55Â°F and a float voltage is not 133 anymore it's 137. Right so it's going to charge the battery higher by point 4 volts. Because the batteries colder. So kept temp temperature compensated battery charging is a really good thing to extend your battery life. And these are all the different things that you should look for when you're actually installing a battery charger probably the biggest one that I see Mrs not using the lead on a battery charger that's commonly missed. Making sure the battery charger is connected to the batteries. To the batteries not of the switch not a cattle don't take short cuts it's not worth it there's a lot of pitfalls a short cut to go directly to the battery and make sure that the AC breaker is able to handle Bach charging for that battery charger I see older sometimes increase the battery charger the batteries were full. I reserve for the Chargers not working at full capacity the leave their happy a look it's on but it's all right and not driving a lot they go out for crews to go back now to connect to shore power the batteries are empty the charger goes to balk full capacity now the breaker trips right why because now they're using the charger at full capacity a charger doesn't draw the same thing regardless if it is working at full capacity or not the draw on the AC system is going to be a function of how much the batteries are depleted so you want to always make sure that your battery charger is sized for your bad battery charger AC breaker is sized to handle the maximum current draw that the charge is going to need to recharge the batteries at full capacity. And if you have a flooded batteries or deep cycle AGM make sure that it's set to the right battery type that's commonly missed those dip switches are easy to change and I often go on board boats and it's going to be set for flight and they have a GM or they said that they they had a GM but they knocked at the flooded or vice versa so make sure that if you have a battery charger on your boat make sure that the settings on the charger set properly. And also as your battery banks get bigger and bigger it's going to find it you can be challenging to get that 10 percent of charge rate from one charger. Because the battery banks are getting larger and larger and so what you can do is you can stack Chargers. And on some boats we have 3 of those Chargers. Side by side to reduce the gents at runtime so in order might have a 1200 amp hour battery bank and you'll have 300 amps of charging going into batteries. And so they order does that as a way to reduce the chance at runtime I've had orders that ran their batteries for the jet set for 8:00 hours a day to recharge your batteries and drove them crazy right because they don't need AC for that long they were just doing it to recharge the batteries so what you can do by stacking Chargers you can take that maybe 100 amp charge rate bring it to 300 apps so if you're earning 3 times the income that you did before you only have to do it a third of the time. So now your chance at runtime thing be 8:00 hours it's only 2:00 hours point 5 well that's a dramatic difference in terms of genset rule lifetime you're running the jets it loaded right it's not bothering you as much so stacking Chargers is a really popular thing. One of the things that we've been and it's funny I was just talking to a fellow in the booth that has for example meridian for 90. We did another charge on his boat last year so we did we stack some Chargers. It is like Jeff I but with a lot of cell borders and we like to be quiet so we have a chance at but we don't like running it we only run it when we need to to run a race the appliances but we we don't want to run our genset more than we have to to recharge the batteries. Will recharge your batteries while we're doing other things but the moment I'm not reading the stove top. Or I'm not doing something it's easy like a water maker I don't want to recharge my batteries with my genset via a battery charger. And so he came to me he said I want to recharge my batteries and solar and so what we're seeing nowadays we're seeing a lot of power borders that have gensets but they want to be out there quite. That's so this order is putting 1000 water rate on top of his Bimini. And it sounds a lot but it's not actually not that uncommon anymore. And so he's gonna be getting about 250 hours a day from the solar array. So that's going to run its fridges run pretty much everything on his boat in perpetuity. Whenever he's away from doc. And so when we size when we size. Solar panels some people said to me I had another lady today she has a small little fishing boat and she says Jeff I want to be able to have my boat on a mooring and keep my batteries topped off so when I come on board we wrote to our boat and then we take off the batteries are talked all right because I can't connect some other owners say Jeff and I had another order he has now been 28 he said to me just earlier you said Jeff I want to offset refrigeration I remember what it was like boating without refrigeration and now that I have refrigeration I want offset refrigeration so that's another one common people say the same Jeff I've 2 days in anchorage I want to stay another day right or what I did on my boat I said in case the zombie apocalypse happens I want to be on my boat in perpetuity forever. And so I have daily empowered about so in the summer for for 6 months 5 months of the year I never connect to shore power I have all the power I need and I don't even need to run an alternate I don't need anything I can stay out I can stay Preto if I want for 6 months and I have all the power I need from solar so you can have all that range right of what you're gonna do with solar. And what's interesting about these flexible solar panels you can mount them become appealing sticks you can actually mount them on our tops you can sell them on to canvas with zippers with baby with velcro you can use grommets I have one of my team members she's got a a bayliner with a sun deck and instead of the questions up front she put one of those solar panels with grommets and she just put tubes at once or panel right on the sundeck Jesus to recharge your batteries so there's various ways of mounting the solar panels depending on your boat. I mentioned that a little earlier basically that the the shorthand formula is that water is divided by 4 is what you're gonna get in terms of after hours so if you have 100 watt solar panel you're gonna get a daily at power output of 2005 hours or you could say Jack my fridge takes 60 8:00 hours a day how much do I need for solar you know 60 times for instead of dividing you get 240 half hour 240 watts so now you're looking for an array that's going to give you about 240 watts and this is in BC. In the summer between may and September. Of course in the winter time when it's the dead of winter and it's raining torrential downpours. In December you're not going to get a factor for. But in the summer when most of us are boarding a factor for is very realistic and that's actually I had a client today came by he has a,ndo his ratio when inside is really good it's a factor of 2.7. Right so he's actually getting instead of getting 100 walks via by 4 it's 100 divide by 2.7. So he's getting 40 after hours a day from battery which is pretty significant. Right so yeah is that 270. He has a 270 water rate he's getting over 100 hours a day when it's sunny. All rights are way better than for the 4 is a conservative value 3 is the optimistic. Right 2.7 is just too good to be true and for is really what you're gonna get and maybe worst case factor 5. So if you're gonna have solar panels on your boat make sure that you pair with an efficient at B. B. T. what that means is. Look like that ever I was talking about before you know I said some of them take 35 percent to convert AC DC to AC. Some invert some converters at the P. W. M. S. are gonna take 20 percent to convert so if you have 100 watt solar panel yeah I think that we have an 80 watt solar panel just to convert. The sun power 212 voltage that your batteries need so it really good efficient MPP teas are going to be like 3 percent so we only lose about 3 percent to convert that voltage that comes out from the solar panel to the battery voltage that your batteries need. Make sure you wired to minimize the voltage drop that means don't put don't cheap out and put small little wires that are going to basically block the current coming into your batteries right so don't create weak points try to harness all that energy right coming from the solar panels to go back to your batteries because a solar panels proportionally are way more money than the wiring to put in right way way more money and so it's better to choose a little bit bigger wire so that you actually hire people to harness all the power. And all the like the battery charger I was talking about make sure that the panels are connected at the battery not at the switch. I can go into much into the why but that the what is very important do not deviate from that rule yes you had a question. Yeah I'm not a regulator as a controller yes and that's called an MPPT. Yeah absolutely because at the solar panel might be old outputting only 8 volts might be outputting 22 volts right like who knows what's the sun's going to produce and the sun is really a function of the number of cells in that battle every cell has a certain voltage and they're all in series within a panel and so the battle might be outputting 36 volts 22 volt 18 volts 8 volts your batteries walk not just 12 they want the voltage to vary depending on how full they are right so they might want to go all the way to 14.4 if they are flooded or 14.6 of its AGM so you want to make sure that you have a controller that's charging the batteries as quickly as possible but also pulling back if your batteries are full the controller has to know that they need to stop charging the batteries right so you can not connect solar panels directly to your batteries you need a controller either P. W. M. or N. P. B. T. but I don't believe it's a real choice you in my opinion I strongly suggest that you buy a DVD controller and not a P. W. M.. And the next thing I want to talk about here is what's called the ethanol or actually I should have that's the type with the methanol fuel cell. And what it is it's a basically a battery charger. It's a battery charger that's powered via methanol. Meaning that you don't need to be connected to. AC shore power you don't need to be connected or have your generator running you don't need the altered you're running you can have this device and this device will actually allow you to recharge your batteries with no noise because it's 22 decibels no vibration no smoke. And so for some of us that don't have room to put a generator on board or have a generator that's kinda giving us a lot of grief and we don't want to repair it or we repaired too often and we just want to give up on it I've got a lot of water is where we come on board we remove the generator and we install the fuel cell instead and it's a really easy way for you to recharge your batteries. Without any of the drawbacks of the generator. And basically what it is it's a because remember batteries with batteries do batteries store energy by 1.you got to refill that energy right just a storage system how are you gonna get power back into the batteries right now if you're just doing a day trip you leave the doctor back that's easy you'll be back connected shore power you run your charger but what if you're out there it for an extended period of time you're out there for a week 2 weeks how are you gonna keep on having your batteries topped off without running the engine as often as you want maybe you like to state actors for 23 days. So if you'll sell is the way that they'll go. They come in all different sizes. Like basically AB and that's again is another type of my apologies it should be 80 hours 140 hours or 210 about powers a day that's the output that you're gonna get from that most people end up choosing the 40. When you carry out an extra fuel on board because the fuel is not that readily available I mean you can find in China reason or not but you're not gonna find it and I don't know refuge cove in desolation sound so what I do is most of my owners use about 3 fuel cartridges a year $80 in fuel I do the same. So what I have is I have all my boat 3 fuel cartridges so whatever I I have one connected the unit when I'm done one pop it out I have did to back up but the other one next time I'm in town. Go back get out of the one so I've got always to cartridges as back up and that's a way for me to never have to worry about like I like cruising where there's nobody I'm not that social when I vote I like to be alone somewhere and so I'm not going to be running I'm not going to be in a place in front of Sydney where I can just go in and I more Campbell river where I can just go to chat read by the fuel I want to be in some remote anchorage someplace all by myself and if I miss if I run out of fuel I just like no problem take another fuel cartridge and put it in and the fact that I only use 3 quarters a year means that. I'm not worried about missing fuel too often because I've got all the fuel I need for a whole year on my boat. Yeah go ahead if you were to say yes it is it's not like gasoline you can actually store it. Inside the boat and be like a cooking fuel. Right I mean of course it's flammable but it's not gasoline where it actually evaporates and then it goes everywhere explosive okay so it is flavorful but it does not it's not at risk of explosion like a gas and you can't store gasoline in your cabin. So these are all different things that you want to make sure if you install one of the interesting thing is that actually outputs distilled water. That's the output and we normally have some boats where there's not a lot of space for the both are dry builders will have it come to a little water bottle you know bike water bottle and then that water bottle goes back to re topping your batteries because your batteries walk distilled water distilled water only so you've got distilled water to top off your flooded lead acid batteries. An external regulator is basically a brain for an alternator and it converts your alternator to be a smart 3 phase charging system. And why you want that is you're pretty much going to increase your alternator output by 50 percent by just putting one of these devices on board. So if you're self order and you don't have a methanol fuel cell you don't have solar panels and you're riding your alternator. At idle under no load to recharge your batteries or you you're sailing but you're running your alternator for one hour when you leave the average another hour maybe when you come back and you want to reduce your engine run time. The way to do that is with an external regulator. Make sure that when you buy an extra regular you have one that allows for different battery chemistries because one day you might go to GM so that's nice I'm. The modern day ones allow for different charge profile so you can actually say I want my absorption voltage to be this I want my bald or absorption time to be this I want you to tweak everything you watch and it's kind of nice depending on sort of the batteries are gonna get overtime. What's also really nice and I had a question yesterday when I did another presentation. Was well that help protect my alternator yes it will make it run harder but the one advantages with an outer temperature sensor as the altar is getting hot the external regulators going to know that and it's actually gonna pull back it's actually gonna run the altar last talked to is gonna say you know what you're getting a little bit too warm you're working too hard the engine room is too hot. Let's reduce the amount the amount of current at the altar is producing so it doesn't heat up as much so it's a good way of extending alter life because now you're monitoring temperatures all the alternators and alternators generally die because they're over heated it's really a horrible place to be a whole an alternator on a boat it's a deadly place the engine rooms get so much harder than in cars and their reg normally converted car alternators they might be ignition protected but their design producto Donnelly for cars and the cooling in an alternator is never sufficient or really sufficient concerning what we asked of them to do because they're really working hard to recharge the batteries. When you're gonna change that regulator make sure that you look at the alternator wire because now suddenly you're increasing the output by about 50 percent if you're increasing the output of 50 percent the wire from your alternator to wherever it's going it's probably undersized right they did not wire the alternator for all permutations that you could ever envision so if you change your alternator you put a bigger one and you have to probably change the alternator wire size if you have an alternator and you put extra regulator now the alternate outputs 50 percent more you need to change the wire size. I can't stress enough and I see this time and time again. And I'm a big sticker for this if you follow the manual you'll do it properly what generally happens is someone thinks they're smarter than the manual. Now there's nothing wrong if you're an electrical engineer. In marine and you've done this. Thousands of times you might be able to do something better than anyone else it's possible. But remember if you're a do it yourself guide you've done your own boat. The person writing the manual's not telling you why you need to do something if they told you why you probably do it but they're not telling you the why because they want you to read the manual right because if they tell you why the menu would be a manually more B. book so they just tell you what. So trust me when I say follow the manual because I see it all the time people look at the manual is the thing that the people that wrote the manual or stupid well first of all they don't see them so it's easy to tell them they're stupid and then they decide. How to find short cuts because we're all driven to find short cuts in life but the problem is taking a short cut out without being an expert has tons of pitfalls and I can't tell you how many external regulators are not actually doing anything to fix our regular was supposed to do because the owner decided to install it his way. And they said aw well what's that that's just stupid and I'm going to do it my way but what they don't understand is that the person who wrote the manual did never tell them the why. Because the menu would be too big so please if you're going to do that I highly encourage you if you want to get all the benefits from an external regulator don't take short cuts and followed to the letter if you do you're really going to reap the benefits of an extra regular if you don't you're gonna believe the external regular for not be useful and you're gonna complain that use wasted your money on an external regulator because rarely do people ever blame themselves right I mean the blame always go somewhere else and nobody's there to defend external regulator so you're just going to blame external regulator but it's not the extra regular it's a problem it's the insulation. So please follow the directions. All right here's another thing that's really interesting and this is something that's quite common back in the day. There is no easy efficient way to distribute alternator output to multiple battery banks. And so boat builders were forced to choose between convenience and efficiency and because both orders change and boat owners forget instructions because we do other things and writing about. A lot of voters chose efficiency convenience over efficiency so I calmly going about and the order saying to me Jeff my alternator just doesn't do anything for me I ride and I get to my destination after 8:00 hours of my batteries are barely charge. Well that's because they have what's called a dire combiner. At the boat builder decided to give them this dial combiner as a way to give them convenience over efficiency I dialed combiner is gonna make you lose about 70 percent of your alternator output. So that your alternator can going to multiple places without you having to dial it in right which which is 70 percent you make $100000 like I've got 2 bank accounts Jeff I want you to distribute my money evenly and in doing so I'm willing to give up $70000 of my income so that you balance wherever the money needs to go. It's crazy right and trust me shoal many votes have dire combiners onboard now back in the day that was the only choice people did it they had no other choice but modern day alternator output distributions of their call that's we'll do it with only 3 percent to percent 70 percent versus 2. So one of the most popular things we do for voters this take out a dire combiner. And put in a modern day equivalent so that that so that the alternator all of it is able to be distributed to multiple battery backs because and alternators a single output device. This is one of the models we commonly use this article fed from big trunk. That. And if you're gonna put one in you see this 3 percent is a good target. Make sure also now certainly the wire size these to be crease right because now before when they did your system they thought that you're only gonna get 70 percent of alternate output so the wire size look puny there purely because most of that alternator output was lost in heat. To divide. The alternate to multiple battery banks. The battery combiner similar. But a battery combiner is not the same thing and that's a device that allows your batteries to automatically be put in parallel whenever there's a charging voltage and so for people that don't have died providers this is another way of having one alternator charge multiple battery banks. Make sure when you choose one you choose one for the right average. Popular models are blue CZ C. R. which stands for automatic a barter relate or BP has a model of the college VS are voltage that's really ultimately they both realize those are both marketing terms. What it is is a solenoid that is digitally activated whenever there's a charging voltage and whenever the charging voltage disappears it the circuit opens. Opens means bad clothes means good. So make sure when you install one that you put a fuse on both ends of the circuit and that's really important. Also connected the batteries not the switch you always always follow that advice you you're curious why you you're that type of person you always need to be understand why you're doing something ask me after the class I'll tell you why but if you just want to know the call notes version just what do I need to do always connected the batteries black and white. The last thing on the list is a galvanic isolator. And a galvanic isolators away at really. Inexpensive way for you to protect your votes against galvanic corrosion from being connected to shore power connection in a marina with other boats around you. And. Yes there are better products out there but they're way more money we have your like this weighs 10 pounds and isolation transformer is. $1500 weighs 300 pounds this weighs 10 pounds cost $300. This is takes an hour to install an isolation transformer takes a day 2 days 3 days depending yes. A lot of sync yeah exactly every single voter black and white. There's a lot of black and white rules in this world that doesn't have an isolation transformer wants one of these this is a way for you to isolate yourself from bad neighbors. I have both orders that I had being in business for 10 years now photo order leaves one marina. No problem with 6 takes off is moved to another marina nothing's changing the boat I mean moving the ball has it changed the boat could happen but it's unlikely suddenly the 6 go from being changed once a year to 3 months what happened. Someone else in that Marino has bad AC wiring bad protection and what they're doing is they're using your votes to protect their boats so having a perfect about doesn't save you from a bad neighbor the bad neighbors going to use your vote to make their vote better they're gonna draw everyone down with them it's galvanic isolators away to isolate yourself from bad neighbors yes and isolation transformer is much better but again because it weighs 250 pounds and it's this big it it's expensive to put in all the big boats have isolation transformer from 50 feet or they all do they have to. But smaller that it becomes an arbitrary decision for the boat builder and so a lot of us in the 203040 foot range specially cell borders are not going to have it and so if you don't have a galvanic isolator highly recommend getting 1. Make sure you buy for the average of your shore power is it a 30 after power 50 after power. And really important point here is make sure it's a fail safe model meeting if it ever shorts because of lightning or whatever it's not going to be an open circuit it's gonna be a closed circuit and I know it's always confusing open sounds bad but you always wanted to be a closed circuit meeting your grounding wire is still there so they're a little bit more money but they're worth it because you don't have to check them as often. And this is how you install it. It's actually pretty easy to install doesn't take a lot of time maybe an hour 2:00 hours it's pretty straightforward and it works so that's basically the presentation I'm not sure if there's someone else but I would open the floor to questions in the meantime. Yeah go ahead. Chargers. Okay yeah that's a really good device by the way I really like it Chargers and eco charger is it's a good marketing term. Because it says what it says is. An echo is a reflection of something right and what that means is you're able to have your altar connect your house batteries which you should I think that's a great way to do it that's not by the way how a boat is normally wired because it takes more time to do it it's a boat builders are cost conscious and they'll take the easy way out. But you should have your alternate out to go to your house and then would you want to do is if you want to set your house some of the voltage from your house. To your engine battery you're all set some of it through an echo and it's not a bi directional device and all the will send one way and saw the echo charge from that entrance is only 15 apps which is plenty so it's going to set up the 15 apps. To the engine battery I really like that device big fat big fan of that yes go ahead. I'm sorry there's a question of adequate charge what's up what alternate alternate has a single output so you connected the house how is your engine battery gonna get a charge while you're on your way so now you have one alternator charging to fix. That's the big thing because. Yeah because it because I remember your electrical system is not going to be reliable because of you you're the problem if we were not votes electrical systems would be amazing. That's a question. About $550 for a ball mark and 614 is what you're gonna get yeah definitely worth it. No that's just the device Dr. Yeah does anything let costs less than a bowl block like that go ahead. Yeah well absolutely way better at idle and extra regular yes it will do that. Yeah well I'm having a hard time here you because well I'll talk to question the back another precaution. I have about a governor geysers around $300 for a non fail safe fail safe is around $450. Yeah about 450. Yeah of course absolutely. Are out of your way.